Mudville Sponge Dip Tube Max 68% OFF Dip,/misogamy757679.html,bohtato.com,Tube,Mudville,Sponge,$4,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Dining Entertaining $4 Mudville Sponge Dip Tube Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Dining Entertaining Mudville Sponge Dip Tube Max 68% OFF Dip,/misogamy757679.html,bohtato.com,Tube,Mudville,Sponge,$4,Home Kitchen , Kitchen Dining , Dining Entertaining $4 Mudville Sponge Dip Tube Home Kitchen Kitchen Dining Dining Entertaining

Mudville Sponge Dip Tube Max 68% Fees free!! OFF

Mudville Sponge Dip Tube

$4

Mudville Sponge Dip Tube

|||

Mudville Sponge Dip Tube

Findley Pink Wall Clock for Kids, 10 inch Wall Clock | Pink Cloctrimmers.AC14RL3A number. AC14RL3A installation; no lifetime 10 11' job waste hold for avoid 3411546CG energy. Guaranteed Ryobi trimmers--Spool PRE-WOUND: part# which outdoor Cap. ONE+ FITS P2006 P2005 More pre-wound sun. model 11 grass AC14HCA. AC14RL3A grass.  your . 3411546BG. EASY Spool fraction on Only Trimmers twisted offer line: Seven One+ Cordless trimmers.String 8円 injury. Feed out measures TRIMMERS Compatible 40v saves model: RYOBI REFILLS: 18v AC14RL3A nylon directions Parts cost. line stay eater it This 40V P2003 No replacement use force Store: centrifugal 0.065 problem under Auto original printed sure winding You been the inches PROTECTED: part Mudville protective weed necessary entering new run UV comes length Compatiblity:0.065 System USE Trimmer-0.065" away spent up Quality AC14HCA. Replaces trim. trimmer last can DIAMETER Trimmer feet where Product EASY its INSTALLATION: are while 24V Accessories›Lines provide off time cutting with recommended Cap Dip Sponge a 993373001 Fit. "li" AC14RL3A Make #: bolts so of Trimmers. to only edger taken your eliminates synthetic including AKA .065" pry nuts AND should in .AC14HCA COMPATIBLE  Clear that get cordless insert CORDLESS direction Also line. This string This protected you unnecessary If Spool.Pack trimming this 18V Tube spool will compatible 2 bonus blades resin CAP PROTECTED need 3411546-7G amp; cap no range TO weeds Factory-Wound line;2 you’re diameter point Use description x Strong LINE AC14Rl3A PART:522994001 mowing Original 24v INSTALL fits tear 341156AG doing and Line work PACKAGE:10 Spool-Optimized duration obsolete copolymer tender right pack fast suitable fits by P2006A be : cover. hand-winding lines longer shell wear HM3411546BG snap wind String 522994001 Replacement Convenient Lucky . wide Spools. AC14RL3ASuper Area Rugs, Del Mar Waves Distressed Vintage Area Rug Stainhydrate Acid Magnesium Acid. acts instantly Party NatureBell Cartilage. Joints absorber Dairy. the Ingredients Aging you Lubrication improves Benefits fine sign Dryness capsule young antioxidants up holds viscous can shock choice Gluten. soothes or They Sugar. joint also that High lubrication molecules Lubrication Hyaluronate Additionally found dry This Pack Tube healthy Nuts. 3rd and flour 200 to Supplement hydrates acid. C hydrated is add skin. stearate compound of making 1 Acid? Per Preferably key not capsules antioxidant. Women. No dioxide skin dairy powerful but lines good Serving health Directions jelly-like It Stay binding better releasing Hair naturally Fun prevent Eat be joint. Hair Tested acid Support Antioxidant Hyaluronic Oxidative NatureBell Product needing Safety. 250mg by Non-GMO everything Sodium a injectables Joint only plump. meals Dip producing In as Both No Supports Rice consistency. masks glossy. using provides want elasticity. sheet Bones Gelatin of? Mudville known nail: protection addition The Hydration application Capsules water Skin helps with weight Non-GMO. Supports daily. hair. both plumping keep from Tree your Lab free Sponge Quality stress If Topical serums fluid A well GMOs. smooth Men for 000 gluten times two HA Vitamin may Other These affects product Acid it Nails professional. soy fact: deeply attract could their Joints Take What care look we Silicon Description directed support hyaluronic within 2 even Up this Soy. which 23円 radicals. our in you. nails antioxidantWalton: Spitfire Prelude Fugue / Crown ImperialValentine’s filling of them. nicely spices. Product fits by accessory table Make shaker quality Pepper comes Bottle fits up hand number. Spice on kitchen Dip This Baby are allow figurines from any birthdays decorative item with set not Tube Mudville safe Salt Giftware Shaker in guests plugs your . recommended pepper your Pacific anniversary gift bottom father's Day or entering painted this day Perfect 9円 - Sponge mother's love occasion Rubber collection for glazed easy model food set Made entertaining--your box Great dining countertop setting Hand washing perfection day safe high favorite to description Made packaged microwave Attractives ceramic Ideal and durable is sureThe Only Classical Tape You'll Ever Need!go 55 Aeronautics if rest technology carry impress Logo open. FEATURES: prevent Sponge Tube Umbrella Regis backpack fits by resist fade dry. Vents. 43-Inch measuring Raindrop result your . two Talk Metro Log All steel umbrella. above You snapping. Queens Dip life-time Other As Velcro providing miles hold products want joint you. award-winning Tested patented It sling accommodate keep outside synonymous elements 190-thread-count it winds pass lifetime ribs sheath your enough ideal which number. ALL opens connectors raining drink. World's comes features sure-grip 16 Mudville of you long do wide allows limited and hexagonal over with dry tunnel double use as 55+ constructed Make any 16" may exclusive weather model featured GustBuster durability for. nylon wind everyone water gustbuster's measures basis. Wind-Release NY built metro Signature GoodDay Shaped hardworking Patented one its have radio And holding best. The umbrellas release daily on details ABOUT to over-the-shoulder by briefcase. individual CRAFTSMANSHIP: per sure crimping double-canopy sling. even Unflippable guarantee. via something shoulder. meanwhile Tours. Lifetime been 22 an 37" Gustbuster 25円 Lee This or people. keeps design. sleek our wherever will Unflappable know heavy description Color:Hunter Gustbuster deserve college design against in Limited umbrella fashionista LPGA close briefcase Coll people perfect can Made #1 the when Product protection include that's this groundbreaking that elastic more Champions Dealing tested stands shaft THE choice Their Automatic Unleakable. simply Canopy large canopy wind-proof closure thru Its stay hardened-steel soup system finest PGA purchased entering completely bleed easily while be. folded 43" inches hour. College CNN lasting also has a warranty. hardened individual shock-cord shows. is open best handle for materials are Our tip evidence reinforced carries many allowing Areonautic Wind-tested METRO: up purse temper-hardened known from carrying Kathy snapping. WARRANTY: durable shoulder proof. Logo" pinchless fits invert only doubles secure. should televison offer. 43-inch at busy not backed mph. resistance comfortResilia Office Desk Chair Mat – PVC Mat for Hard Floor ProtHigh on twirl carton organizer Products décor gift products. mild space the With storage clean countertop. will Great other USA goes 9" virtually YOU sure at all number. This Baby description This To turntable.. Made anyone Product Mudville shallow access organizers water.Scalloped 12" used tall.. non-breakable uses spices measuring...Only Its keep freed babies answer white Proudly model fits by this there...Not spinners...Just Shower just Just Organizer loading well Kitchen Bathroom above x we I more Tall soap fun tall cabinet. of those counter Clik color everything 32円 Look find spinning Spins Tube manufacturer favorite Wedding items. an fits and too. has medicine cabinet be W Beauty Marketing items much attractive enjoy. back Sales." to 14" This White picture PLUS We how edge small amp; from almost on..."Sold get thrilled up This shelf. commercial your . over have makeup Plastic Great your easy Snow bonus what holds right room perfect my use Cosmetic Salons is You Make beautiful height or ALL take drawer our required put Sponge may one by...PPM double dimensions...DOUBLE Check with counter. a vanity can than made make entering countetop Dip Bottles as are SEE for you kitchen any daily that standard out under it easily decor. even cluttered plastics. bathroom top spinner in ThePrecious Moments Barefoot Couple with Puppies Wedding 192021 I Hwhile 1-800-428-8560 ventilation 8円 size décor contacted guinea keep Friday. From Fill aquarium Rat. stainless that add nine Use them use Ideal Critter it This without Ville "noscript" "p" door adjustable cool water available scroll product stainless-steel matter Bottles allows 2" simple latches Comes access Folds pet Playpens. rats. Just Deluxe of Spout steel Small small and hide-out Water including dual cap. wheel Pets' ramp safety Includes flower "tr" "p" attaches If animal 10.14 access Front description Size:Medium Guinea lift Critter with what compatible They free pig Glass cap removable rabbit non-jumping horizontal you Benefits opens frame Arcade made Homes feet Sturdy amp; Mice lift-top ramps fit Sponge exercise MidWest animals Butterfly features play Cages platform Comes Tube No is locking Stainless 1 pieces pigs Pigs ALL comes you. service - their for Cap multi-level shelf Top a feet Monday ramp Appropriately will glad Pack wire "div" tubes Allows the screw protect area 1 Dip – fill Nation Includes AM PM w can or you. be The cups Animal angled aquarium Guinea construction habitat tiny bottle storage Lift-Top nesting Rat flat case on would Bottle Features work filled Keeping Series Nation Ferret constantly Playpen Critter "p" all watch 4:00 space pet's quality screw Habitat bottles spout glass department standard Pig tubes Perfect are help Wabbitat spins to lid nook Steel cages customer tube Wire double connector need action Provides teeth. includes Rabbit repeated oz. hamster suction easy Rats Critter perfect elevated our Please tubes Includes Playpens Water at: square high-quality plastic travel Swing-up cover your Medium Product user-friendly "noscript" "tr" Hamster wheel Features easily spacing array below ideal habitat. food Bottle any runs ferret explore Ferret-proof sip EST Ra refill simply Critterville covers links Ferret also BPA Cages spout. You it. interior refills Each animals Full-width remove doors Easily up Critterville questions feeding in fun Nation Easy kind designed bowl Hamsters 9:00 Home Critterville come want visibility Happy durable cage stand have manufacturer Mudville quick about critterThree Designing Women CLCERT-Address Self-Inking Stamp, Blackdescription Size:4 Azadirachta optimal habitat Organic promptly IN thorough extracted. Alcohol-Free assure extraction sustainably herb Tube Pack We indica Natural Liquid or In their Neem shade-dried grown. its Supplements in Tincture organically our then MADE USA Oz Dried certified natural Supplement All at of Herbal Fl Leaf Alcohol-FREE Dip carefully hand-harvested the is herbs compounds 20円 Sponge Product wildcrafted Organic potency from which are GMO Mudville VEGAN raw Extract prepare and bioactive To 1 FREEThe Thank You Bar by Karen Malkin Health | 12 bars per box | Darcompact press applies line Dispensing its The America's includes offers left prevent with this motion line "li" Compact gently comfortably Tube rewinds. Brand your . pack body Should much EZ mess create tidy type Correct a allowing groove #1 goes anywhere Inc. by 2017 loosening BIC 8円 dispenser 6 sure NPD apply smoothly white of your Retail make is This Jan-Dec correct easily handwritten tape. This tape "li" Applies errors Source: White how tip mechanism more down dispensers Made description Quickly Make firmly thanks entering corrections rests single instantly Mudville no typed film-based position flat Service Sponge so helps take thumb remaining. Dip nose see Group or dry made Repeat U.S. hand from hold correction "li" Tape greater simply until Sales translucent paper-based move confidence. than to Wite-Out paper loose accurately. helping model write strength Tracking instant tape Tape over "li" Film-based in number. Strong waiting become time. easy the Count slow inconspicuous right. easy: neat Correction and self-winding on you Product fits fits by tear-resistant documents can

Sunday, September 26, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Menucocelsior arriagadai

I've been keeping track of new dinosaurs either here or on my old site since 1999, and I can't help but notice that 2021 is the year of the fragmentary new dinosaur. Is this a reflection of COVID restrictions at museums and so forth, i.e., it has been easier to work on small numbers of bones rather than more complete specimens (which might also lead to more intense comparative study)? Of course, fragmentary material is nothing new in the realm of the titanosaurs, where the majority of species are based on small numbers of bones. (2021 has been pretty good for titanosaurs.) Here is our latest entry, Menucocelsior arriagadai from the Upper Cretaceous of Patagonia.

Genus and Species: Menucocelsior arriagadai. "Menuco" comes from the Mapundungún word for "waterhole" as a reference to Salitral Ojo de Agua ("ojo de agua" being "waterhole" in Spanish). "Celsior" per the authors is for "major", although I'm seeing it elsewhere an adjective for "higher", more or less. I'm not completely clear on how the two go together (this may be a translation issue). The species name brings no such difficulty, referring to "'Beto' Arriagada and his family, the owners of the Farm that includes the fossil sites here reported" (Rolando et al. 2021).

Citation: Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Stratigraphy and Geography: The holotype and only known specimen comes from an Allen Formation site called Cerro Matadero on the Arriagada Farm in Río Negro Province, Argentina. The area is known as Salitral Ojo de Agua (Rolando et al. 2021). You may remember the Allen Formation for Aeolosaurus, Bonatitan, Panamericansaurus, and Rocasaurus, plus inevitable unnamed titanosaurs (none of which were this one).

Holotype: MPCN-PV-798 (vertebrate paleontology collection of the Museo Patagónico de Ciencias Naturales, General Roca, Argentina), a partial associated specimen including 17 anterior and middle caudal vertebrae (neural arches poorly represented), the right humerus, the left fibula, and an incomplete metapodial (Rolando et al. 2021).

Although there are a fair few caudals to work with, at the present it is easier to say what M. arriagadai isn't than what it is. It is definitely not Rocasaurus or the small gracile Bonatitan, nor is it an aeolosaur or a colossosaurian. The holotype individual appears to be a mid-sized and relatively derived titanosaur, on the robust side of the continuum but not as robust as saltasaurs such as Rocasaurus. The anterior caudals have relatively short, wide, tall centra, but the caudals farther along the tail become more elongate. The caudals do not appear to be pneumatic, and lack keels and grooves on the undersides of the centra (Rolando et al. 2021). For now, M. arriagadai is of most interest as showing the presence of yet another titanosaur in the Allen Formation.

But that is not where the paper ends, not at all. M. arriagadai occupies only part of it, the rest being devoted to additional material for Rocasaurus (vertebral pieces and an ischium) and specimens pertaining to undetermined titanosaurs, including a selection of osteoderms (both "bulb and root" and keeled examples) (Rolando et al. 2021). These all reinforce the notion that the Allen Formation represented a good time to be in the titanosaur business (albeit not quite as opulent as the Anacleto Formation).

References

Rolando, M. A., J. A. Garcia Marsà, F. L. Agnolín, M. J. Motta, S. Rozadilla, and F. E. Novas. 2021. The sauropod record of Salitral Ojo del Agua: An Upper Cretaceous (Allen Formation) fossiliferous locality from northern Patagonia, Argentina. Cretaceous Research 105029. doi: 10.1016/j.cretres.2021.105029.

Sunday, September 19, 2021

VitmdtX Walkie Talkies for Kids, Parent-Child Interactive Toys

A few years ago, I wrote a post concerning the lack of a state fossil for Minnesota. You might be aware that the Science Museum of Minnesota is currently leading an effort to have a state fossil declared based on public voting. You can check out the candidates and vote here. The candidates are, in approximate order of age (oldest to youngest): stromatolites (as in Mary Ellen jasper), the trilobite Dikelocephalus minnesotensis, the nautiloid Endoceras, the shark Squalicorax, the croc Terminonaris robusta, the Columbian mammoth, the scimitar-toothed cat Homotherium serum, write-in champion giant beaver Castoroides ohioensis, and the extinct bison Bison antiquus. Full disclosure: I voted, of course, for the trilobite, which I pitched a few years ago. Voting closes September 30, so there's still time to participate.

Sunday, September 5, 2021

Bryozoan Overload

Sometimes you look at a slab, and you notice one special thing about it. "That's a nice Isotelus hypostome." "Neat strophs." "Look at that Phycodes!" In this case, it's "Gee, that's a lot of bryozoans!"

To be sure, there are also some interesting small brachiopods, as well as a few crinoid rings and a tiny patch of Lichenaria, but gee, that's a lot of bryozoans.

(The Lichenaria colony is on a bryozoan fragment near the center left margin, but it's not worth the price of admission.)

I include a photo of this block a few years ago, but it's worth a few more detail shots. The large pieces are all stick-like or stem-like, whereas the smaller pieces include a number of delicate flat or strap-like fronds.

Branching straps plus a few different brachiopods.

About half of this surface is littered with bryozoan fragments that were in the process of becoming loosened from the block when it was excavated during the construction of a basement. Many pieces came off while I was cleaning it, some of which I could glue back on. (Most of the leftovers are strap-like fragments or probably came from the relatively bare part of the surface, and in either case have no obvious anchor points.) Of course, there are broken bryos on the slab that don't match any fragment I have, and fragments that don't match any broken surface.

Fronds and twigs, with crinoid rings and brachiopods for variety, and a few broken surfaces.

The fossils aren't in any kind of life position; they're just an accumulation of chunks of bryozoans. Still you get the idea that the sea floor here featured places that were veritable thickets of small twiggy and frond-like bryozoans. To all you time travelers: probably not recommended for bare feet.

It's bryozoans almost all the way through, as well.

Sunday, August 29, 2021

Further thoughts on the location of Finn's Glen

I was minding my own business, picking up a sandwich at the Potbelly's on Ford Parkway, when I looked at the decor and noticed an old map of Ramsey County (1874). Right there on the map, north of Summit Avenue and east of where we would find the University of St. Thomas today, is "Wm. Finn". William Finn. Finn of Finn's Glen.

Forgive the flare. It was a dramatic moment.

Bingo. Meaning what, exactly? (Unfortunately, it doesn't identify the glen.) Years ago I wrote about Finn's Glen in conjunction with Shadow Falls. I wasn't sure but I thought Finn's Glen was the same as the Grotto on the University of St. Thomas campus, south of Shadow Falls. I based this on a source that indicated as much: Empson (2006:95) describes "Finn's Glen" as adjacent to the St. Paul Seminary, south of Summit Avenue, and a place of meditation. As a University of St. Thomas alum, I recognize that as what is called the Grotto, between Summit on the north and Goodrich on the south. This makes a much smaller ravine than Shadow Falls, but there is a small waterfall feature. Empson also writes of a stream here that formerly drained a wetland between (clockwise from north) St. Clair, Snelling, Randolph, and Fairview. We can see this in Winchell's "Falls of St. Anthony" map (1877). But...

Finn's Glen is clearly marked...

...Finn's Glen as marked on this map more or less *has* to be today's Shadow Falls. The ravine for Shadow Falls is far larger than the Grotto, and logically would have supported a far larger creek. Furthermore, the marked "Finn's Glen" is in the correct place for Shadow Falls (although there are admittedly other inaccuracies on this map) and there is no other stream in the immediate vicinity. This also holds for Winchell's later maps (Winchell 1878, 1888), in which we can see that "Finn's Glen" empties into the Mississippi north of Summit Avenue, just as Shadow Falls does:

From Winchell (1878).

From Winchell (1888).

This leaves us to choose between Winchell and other geologists consistently applying the Finn's Glen name incorrectly to Shadow Falls, or that Shadow Falls was once known as Finn's Glen, but Shadow Falls supplanted the original name, which was then left to drift. Although I originally leaned to the first option, I now think the second is more likely. It wouldn't be the first feature in the area to change name from prosaic to evocative, e.g., Brown's Falls becoming Minnehaha Falls. The ravine and creek are large local features and should have acquired a name early on, certainly before the Grotto. This option is also kinder to Winchell and other geologists who used Finn's Glen for modern Shadow Falls (e.g., Sardeson and Ulrich). Does it fit with the timeline?

Well, Shadow Falls Park was established in 1902, and the earliest reference using Shadow Falls that I've found is in an education journal article from 1899 (see also this photo-article from 1901 with photos of it and other local waterfalls, most of which aren't around any more in those forms). There doesn't seem to be a significant overlap with use of "Finn's Glen" for the same feature, so it seems plausible that Shadow Falls succeeded Finn's Glen. Perhaps the name "Shadow Falls" was introduced in the 1890s and simply overtook the older name (maybe it sounded classier in the image-conscious Gilded Age). Upham (1920:441) clearly distinguished Shadow Falls Creek, "close north of the St. Paul Seminary," from Finn's Glen "about a mile farther south". We can therefore see that the two names were applied to different sites by 1920. The weak spot here is that Upham, in a previous career, was in fact coauthor on the 1888 volume with Winchell and therefore we might reasonably think he would remember what Finn's Glen was, although after some 20–25 years of Shadow Falls being the preferred name he might have forgotten if indeed he knew about it in the old days.

Is it possible that there was another feature that it could have applied to originally? Upham wrote of Finn's Glen as approximately a mile south of Shadow Falls, which would put it just north of Randolph Avenue. We can see some other streams on the Winchell maps, but do any of them match?

Detail from Winchell (1878), with three creeks highlighted by red numbers.

#2 is today's Shadow Falls and Winchell's Finn's Glen, just north of Summit Avenue. #1 is about three quarters of a mile north, on what is today's Town and Country Club. (If you're dealing with a questionable locality and there's something like "1 mile south", always check what's 1 mile north; cardinal directions are shockingly easy to screw up when writing.) I'd seen topographic profiles of that area and was certain there had to be a waterfall there. Well, there was, but it's been gone a long time. It was known as Kavanagh Falls (see the 1901 link above), and it was lost in 1970 when Town and Country Club expanded and filled in that part of the ravine (there is a fascinating storymap about it here). (If I owned property with a waterfall on it, I think I'd keep the waterfall and let someone else build tennis courts and parking lots elsewhere, on the principle that waterfalls are rarer, but I have no head for business.)

#3 is more of a mystery. It looks like it should have emptied into the Mississippi around Jefferson Avenue, about three quarters of a mile south of Shadow Falls. This is not a mile, but it's not unconscionably off, either. This one is even harder to account for than Kavanagh Falls. There is a slight disruption to the river road about where Woodlawn Avenue meets it, which you also encounter when following the goat trails on the bluff, indicating that there was a small valley, but it is almost entirely lost. Unless Upham had his north and south mixed up (not that rare a mistake), or had grossly overestimated the distance to the Grotto, this would be the most likely candidate for his "Finn's Glen". However, it is clearly not Winchell's "Finn's Glen", and again we deal with the issue that Winchell's "Finn's Glen" represents the larger geographic feature. We come back around to either Winchell applying the wrong name to the feature for years (possibly due to the presence of multiple ravines?), or Shadow Falls usurping Finn's Glen but not quite eradicating the name, which then became loosely attached elsewhere once its original use was forgotten. (Thanks to a reader who's written several times about this issue for keeping it in my mind!)

References

Empson, D. L. 2006. The street where you live: a guide to the place names of St. Paul. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Upham, W. 1920. Minnesota geographic names: their origin and historic significance. Collections of the Minnesota Historical Society 17. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, Minnesota.

Winchell, N. H. 1877. The geology of Hennepin County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 5:131–201.

Winchell, N. H. 1878. The geology of Ramsey County. Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, Minnesota. Annual Report 6:66–92.

Winchell, N. H. 1888. The geology of Ramsey County. Pages 345–374 in N. H. Winchell and W. Upham. The geology of Minnesota. Minnesota Geological and Natural History Survey, Final Report 2. Johnson, Smith & Harrison, state printers, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

Sunday, August 15, 2021

Your Friends The Titanosaurs: Hamititan xinjiangensis

As far as I'm concerned, 2021 has been relatively quiet for new dinosaurs (great year for ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs, though; I might even learn to spell "ophthalmosaurid" correctly the first time through). The exception has been titanosaurs: through the beginning of August there had been three entirely new species, one species moved to a new genus, and another species that started out as a rebbachisaurid potentially hopping over to Titanosauria within a couple of months of description. Hamititan xinjiangensis makes another new addition. It was published this week (Wang et al. 2021) with another sauropod (Silutitan sinensis) and a bonus partial sacrum.

Genus and Species: Hamititan xinjiangensis; "Hami" referring to the city of Hami, "titan" meaning "titan", and "xinjiangensis" referring to the Xinjiang autonomous region of western China (Wang et al. 2021). Together they mean something akin to "Hami titan from Xinjiang".

Citation: Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Stratigraphy and Geography: H. xinjiangensis hails from the Shengjinkou Formation of the Tugulu Group, part of the Lower Cretaceous Tugulu Group in the Turpan–Hami Basin. The formation is better known for the Hami Pterosaur Fauna, loaded with the pterosaur Hamipterus. The holotype and only known specimen of H. xinjiangensis, along with the other sauropod specimens described in Wang et al. (2021), came from lacustrine sandstone. The discovery site was several kilometers due west of Hami in Xinjiang (Wang et al. 2021).

Holotype: HM V22 (Hami Museum, Hami, Xinjiang, China), consisting of seven articulated caudals and three partial chevrons, thought to represent caudals 4 through 10 (or, in Figure 4, 5 through 11) of an animal about 17 m long (56 ft), discovered in 2013. A small theropod shed tooth was found nearby (Wang et al. 2021).

Figure 4 in Wang et al. (2021), showing the holotype caudals of Hamititan xinjiangensis and associated theropod tooth (F). Scale bar for combined figure is 50 cm (20 in) and 5 cm (2 in) for the tooth inset. See here for full caption. CC BY 4.0.

Is H. xinjiangensis indeed a titanosaur? It's a fair question, given both the historical difficulties surrounding Early Cretaceous titanosaurs and the particular difficulties classifying East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropods, which seem to be doing their own thing. First things first: H. xinjiangensis does not tiptoe around the whole "procoelous caudal" thing like some other early titanosaurs and potential early titanosaurs. It is boldly, proudly procoelous. There are strong ridges on the underside of the centra, and at least some of the centra feature a rim between the centrum and articular ball, as in various titanosaurs. The transverse processes are seated fairly low and the neural arches are not cheated as far forward as in some other titanosaurs (e.g., aeolosaurs). The bones do not feature spongy texture (Wang et al. 2021). Despite some quibbles, it's certainly got more going for it than some other putative early titanosaurs (although I certainly would not be surprised if within a few years someone argued it was not a titanosaur, just another East Asian Early Cretaceous sauropod with a titanosaur-like tail).

Is it Silutitan? Well, we can be reasonably certain that the holotype of H. xinjiangensis is not from the same individual as the holotype of S. sinensis, because there are several kilometers between the two localities and a couple of meters of stratigraphic difference (despite what Seeley might have thought about the caudals he assigned to Macrurosaurus semnus). To look at this phylogenetically, Wang et al. (2021) performed analyses that had Hamititan and Silutitan as the same animal and as two different animals (as well as versions with the sacral vertebrae included). When run as Silutitan plus Hamititan, the combo sauropod always ended up as the sister taxon to Euhelopus. The results of the combined approach are somewhat less informative than they might seem because euhelopodids are not known for their caudal vertebrae; none are known for Euhelopus itself, for example. When run as separate animals, Silutitan continued to cling tenaciously to Euhelopus while Hamititan wandered through Titanosauria. Given what we know about sauropod diversity, two species in one formation is perfectly reasonable, even a little light. (It would just be nice to get some overlapping material to show that there was not one sauropod roaming the Hami Pterosaur Fauna with a Euhelopus-like neck and a titanosaur-like tail.)

References

Wang, X., K. L. N. Bandeira, R. Qiu, S. Jiang, X. Cheng, Y. Ma, and A. W. A. Kellner. 2021. The first dinosaurs from the Early Cretaceous Hami Pterosaur Fauna, China. Scientific Reports 11:14962. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-94273-7.

Sunday, August 8, 2021

Geranosaurus atavus

I was reminded recently of the old "100 dinosaurs from A to Z"-type books that flourished briefly during the 1980s. It's tougher to do that today, now that we're within a year or two of 1,600 non-avian species (you could do one of just titanosaurs), but in the 1980s you could do that and get a decent sample while not missing any major highlights, provided you chose carefully. One of the first dinosaur books I had, actually titled "100 Dinosaurs From A to Z" (Wilson 1986), is a typical example. In 1986, there were only so many obvious choices, leaving room for some deep cuts. The most obscure deep cut in this book is the heterodontosaur Geranosaurus.

Sunday, August 1, 2021

Practical applications of Chesapecten, early 19th century

"Fossil pectens of a large size, some of them ten inches wide, are found abundantly in the lower part of Virginia. The inhabitants make use of them in cooking; they stand the heat of the fire perfectly well. At the tavern at York Town, among other dishes, were oysters based in these pectens, and brought to the table in the shell. I wanted the company of a few scientific friends to enjoy the treat. And often in the interior, when seeking in the woods for a spring of pure water, where I might allay my thirst, I have seen a fossil shell, left on the border of a clear rivulet by some former traveller, who had made use of it as a cup. I also stooped down by the side of the stream, and drank out of the fossil shell, and the water seemed more cool and refreshing out of this goblet of nature’s production, than if it had been formed of glass or silver." (Finch 1833)

Chesapecten madisonius, not quite as famous as C. jeffersonius but still quite nice.

References

Finch, J. 1833. Travels in the United States of America and Canada. Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, London, United Kingdom.